We say “изучать” when talking about a subject in school, college or university, etc. or a certain science or knowledge field. “изучать” is followed by a noun in Accusative. The object after “изучать” answers the question “what?”.
-Что ты изучаешь в университете? (What do you study at university?)
-Я изучаю математику и физику. (I study Math and Science.)
The verb “учить” has two meanings in Russian:
1) We use the verb with smaller element of a subject: words, formulas, texts, etc. After “учить” we also use Accusative and the nouns answer the question “what?”.
Марина учит (что?) слова и фразы. (Marina is learning (what?) words and phrases.)
Парень учит (что?) даты и факты. (A guy is learning (what?) dates and facts.)
2) “учить” is used to mean “to teach”. In this case the following noun will be in Accusative too and will answer the question “whom?”. We add the verb in infinitive to say what action is being taught.
Учитель учит детей читать. (A teacher is teaching kids to read.)
Мама учит ребенка рисовать. (A mother is teaching her child to draw.)
Next up is the verb “учиться”. It comes in handy when we want to say that a person is a student or a pupil, so they study in school, college, university and the like. After using the verb we usually either specify the place, so the following structure answers the question “where?”, or describe the process answering the question “how?”. When mentioning a place, we use prepositions “в”/ “на” and a noun in Prepositional. To say how someone studies we use an adverb.
– Где ты учишься? (Where do you study?)
– Я учусь в школе. (I study at school.)
– Как ты учишься? (How do you study?)
– Я учусь хорошо. (I study well.)